Today – September 22

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Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

English: Michael Faraday by Thomas Phillips oi...
English: Michael Faraday by Thomas Phillips oil on canvas, 1841-1842 35 3/4 in. x 28 in. (908 mm x 711 mm) Purchased, 1868 NPG 269 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Michael Faraday – English scientist who established the foundations of electical theory.

Michael Faraday (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of the time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

English: Drawing of Michael Faraday's experime...
English: Drawing of Michael Faraday’s experiment demonstrating electromagnetic rotation (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Faraday studied the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a DC electric current, and established the basis for the electromagnetic field concept in physics. He discovered electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and laws of electrolysis. He established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.  His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became viable for use in technology.

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U. S. Contemporaries: Revolutionary War Cycle – Compromise Generation – Artist (Adaptive) (1767-1791)

Today – September 14

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Today’s Notable Birthdays

U. S. Birthday

Margaret Sanger – Founder of Planned Parenthood and birth control activist.

Margaret Sanger Deutsch: Margaret Sanger (* 1879)
Margaret Sanger Deutsch: Margaret Sanger (* 1879) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Margaret Higgins Sanger Slee (September 14, 1879 – September 6, 1966) was an American birth control activist and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood). Although she was initially met with opposition, Sanger gradually won some support for getting women access to contraception. In her drive to promote contraception and negative eugenics, Sanger remains a controversial figure.

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World War Cycle – The Gilded Age – First Turning, High (1866-1885)
Missionary Generation – Prophet (Idealist) (1860-1882)

Continue reading Today – September 14

Today – August 30

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Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

Ernest Rutherford – The father of nuclear physics

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson (30 August 1871–19 October 1937) was a New Zealand born British chemist and physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics.  He discovered that atoms have a small charged nucleus, and thereby pioneered the Rutherford model (or planetary model, which later evolved into the Bohr model or orbital model) of the atom, through his discovery of Rutherford scattering with his gold foil experiment. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908. He is widely credited as splitting the atom in 1917 and leading the first experiment to “split the nucleus” in a controlled manner by two students under his direction, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton in 1932.

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U. S. Contemporaries: World War Cycle – Missionary Generation – Prophet (Idealist) (1860-1882)

Today – August 26

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Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

Antoine Lavoisier – The father of modern chemistry.

Portrait of Monsieur de Lavoisier and his Wife...
Portrait of Monsieur de Lavoisier and his Wife, chemist Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (26 August 1743 – 8 May 1794), the father of modern chemistry, was a French noble prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He stated the first version of the law of conservation of mass, recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783), abolished the phlogiston theory, helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same. Thus, for instance, if water is heated to steam, if salt is dissolved in water or if a piece of wood is burned to ashes, the total mass remains unchanged. He was also an investor and administrator of the “Ferme Générale” a private tax collection company; chairman of the board of the Discount Bank (later the Banque de France); and a powerful member of a number of other aristocratic administrative councils. All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research. At the height of the French Revolution he was accused by Marat of selling watered-down tobacco, and of other crimes, and was beheaded

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U. S. Contemporaries: Revolutionary War Cycle – Republican Generation – Hero (Civic) (1742-1766)

Today – August 6

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Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

Alexander Fleming – Discoverer of penicillin

Sir Alexander Fleming, Nobel Prize in Medicine...
Sir Alexander Fleming, Nobel Prize in Medicine 1945 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Català: Penicillium chrysogenum, syn. Penicill...
Penicillium chrysogenum, syn. Penicillium notatum (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. Fleming published many articles on bacteriology, immunology and chemotherapy.

His best-known achievements are the discovery of the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.

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U. S. Contemporaries: World War Cycle – Missionary Generation – Prophet (Idealist) (1860-1882)

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Today – July 20

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Today’s Notable Birthdays

U. S. Birthday

Anne Hutchinson – Religious dissident banned from the Puritan Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Anne Hutchinson on Trial
Anne Hutchinson on Trial (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Anne Hutchinson (baptized July 20, 1591 – August 20, 1643) was a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands and the unauthorized minister of a dissident church discussion group. Hutchinson held Bible meetings for women that soon appealed to men as well. Eventually, she went beyond Bible study to proclaim her own theological interpretations of sermons, some, such as antinomianism, offended the colony leadership. A major controversy ensued, and after a trial before a jury of officials and clergy, she was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

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Colonial Cycle – Elizabethan Renaissance Era – First Turning, High (1589-1620)
Puritan Generation – Prophet (Idealist) (1584-1614)

Continue reading Today – July 20

Today – July 1

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Notable Foreign Birthdays

Carl von Clausewitz – Influential writer on the philosophy and theory of War.

Carl von Clausewitz, painting by Karl Wilhelm ...
Carl von Clausewitz, painting by Karl Wilhelm Wach. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Carl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz (July 1, 1780 – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier, military historian and military theorist.

Cover of "On War"
Cover of On War

He is most famous for his military treatise Vom Kriege, translated into English as On War, which influenced the thinking of world leaders prior to WW I.

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U. S. Contemporaries: Revolutionary War Cycle – Compromise Generation – Artist (Adaptive) (1767-1791)

Continue reading Today – July 1

Today – June 26

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Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) – British physicist who developed the Kelvin scale for absolute temperatures.

English: Photograph of William Thomson, Lord K...
English: Photograph of William Thomson, Lord Kelvin. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (or Lord Kelvin) (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was an Irish-born British mathematical physicist and engineer. At Glasgow University he did important work in the mathematical analysis of electricity and thermodynamics, and did much to unify the emerging discipline of physics in its modern form. He is widely known for developing the Kelvin scale of absolute temperature measurement. He was given the title Baron Kelvin in honour of his achievements and is therefore often described as Lord Kelvin. The title refers to the River Kelvin, which flows past his university in Glasgow, Scotland.

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U. S. Contemporaries: Civil War Cycle – Gilded Generation – Nomad (Reactive) (1822-1842)

Today – June 19

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Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

Blaise Pascal – Early French prodigy in science and mathematics

Portrait of Pascal
Portrait of Pascal (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Blaise Pascal (June 19, 1623 – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a civil servant. Pascal’s earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the construction of mechanical calculators, the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalizing the work of Evangelista Torricelli. Pascal also wrote in defense of the scientific method.

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U. S. Contemporaries: Colonial Cycle – Cavalier Generation – Nomad (Reactive) (1615-1647)

Today – June 13

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Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

James Clerk Maxwell – Essential Scottish theoretical physicist.

James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879)
James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish theoretical physicist and mathematician. His most important achievement was classical electromagnetic theory, synthesizing all previously unrelated observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and even optics into a consistent theory.  His set of equations—Maxwell’s equations—demonstrated that electricity, magnetism and even light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon: the electromagnetic field. From that moment on, all other classic laws or equations of these disciplines became simplified cases of Maxwell’s equations. Maxwell’s work in electromagnetism has been called the “second great unification in physics”, after the first one carried out by Isaac Newton.

Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia

U. S. Contemporaries: Civil War Cycle – Gilded Generation – Nomad (Reactive) (1822-1842)