Today – October 24

#SCIENCE #OTD

Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek – The father of Microbiology

Portrait of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632—1723).
Portrait of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632—1723). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek (born on October 24, 1632 – baptized on November 4, and died on August 26, 1723 – buried on August 30) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist from Delft, the Netherlands. He is commonly known as “the Father of Microbiology“, and considered to be the first microbiologist. He is best known for his work on the improvement of the microscope and for his contributions towards the establishment of microbiology. Using his handcrafted microscopes he was the first to observe and describe single celled organisms, which he originally referred to as animalcules, and which we now refer to as microorganisms. He was also the first to record microscopic observations of muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa and blood flow in capillaries (small blood vessels). Van Leeuwenhoek never wrote books, just letters.

Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia

U. S. Contemporaries: Colonial Cycle – Cavalier Generation – Nomad (Reactive) (1615-1647)

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Today – October 7

#SCIENCE #OTD

Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

Neils Bohr – Pioneer in the development of nuclear physics.

Niels Bohr. In 1922 the Nobel Prize in Physics...
Niels Bohr. In 1922 the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Niels Bohr for his contributions to the understanding of quantum mechanics. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Bohr mentored and collaborated with many of the top physicists of the century at his institute in Copenhagen. He was part of a team of physicists working on the Manhattan Project. Bohr married Margrethe Nørlund in 1912, and one of their sons, Aage Bohr, grew up to be an important physicist who in 1975 also received the Nobel prize. Bohr has been described as one of the most influential scientists of the 20th century.

Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia

U. S. Contemporaries: World War Cycle – Lost Generation – Nomad (Reactive) (1883-1900)

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Today – October 5

#SCIENCE #POTUS #OTD

Today’s Notable U. S. Birthdays

Chester Arthur – 20th Vice President and 21st President of the United States

English: Chester Alan Arthur. 21st President o...
Chester Alan Arthur. 21st President of the United States (1881-1885) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. Arthur was a member of the Republican Party and worked as a lawyer before becoming the 20th Vice President under James Garfield. While Garfield was mortally wounded by Charles J. Guiteau on July 2, 1881, he did not die until September 19, at which time Arthur was sworn in as president, serving until March 4, 1885

Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia

Civil War Cycle – Transcendental Awakening Era – Second Turning, Awakening (1822-1837)
Gilded Generation – Nomad (Reactive) (1822-1842)

Continue reading Today – October 5

Today – September 25

#SCIENCE #OTD

Today’s Notable U. S. Birthdays

Thomas Hunt Morgan – American geneticist and first Nobel Prize winner in the field of genetics.

English: This image is one of several created ...
This image is one of several created for the 1891 Johns Hopkins yearbook of 1891, see Shine and Hobel. 1976. Thomas Hunt Morgan. The University Press of Kentucky ISBN 081319995X for other examples of photos from the same sitting. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American geneticist and embryologist. Morgan received his PhD from Johns Hopkins University in 1890 and researched embryology during his tenure at Bryn Mawr. Following the rediscovery of Mendelian inheritance in 1900, Morgan’s research moved to the study of mutation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In his famous Fly Room at Columbia University Morgan was able to demonstrate that genes are carried on chromosomes and are the mechanical basis of heredity. These discoveries formed the basis of the modern science of genetics. When he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 he was the first person awarded the Prize in genetics, for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity.

Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia

World War Cycle – The Gilded Age – First Turning, High (1866-1885)
Missionary Generation – Prophet (Idealist) (1860-1882)

Continue reading Today – September 25

Today – September 22

#SCIENCE #OTD

Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

English: Michael Faraday by Thomas Phillips oi...
English: Michael Faraday by Thomas Phillips oil on canvas, 1841-1842 35 3/4 in. x 28 in. (908 mm x 711 mm) Purchased, 1868 NPG 269 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Michael Faraday – English scientist who established the foundations of electical theory.

Michael Faraday (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of the time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

English: Drawing of Michael Faraday's experime...
English: Drawing of Michael Faraday’s experiment demonstrating electromagnetic rotation (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Faraday studied the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a DC electric current, and established the basis for the electromagnetic field concept in physics. He discovered electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and laws of electrolysis. He established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.  His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became viable for use in technology.

Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia

U. S. Contemporaries: Revolutionary War Cycle – Compromise Generation – Artist (Adaptive) (1767-1791)

Today – September 14

#SCIENCE #OTD

Today’s Notable Birthdays

U. S. Birthday

Margaret Sanger – Founder of Planned Parenthood and birth control activist.

Margaret Sanger Deutsch: Margaret Sanger (* 1879)
Margaret Sanger Deutsch: Margaret Sanger (* 1879) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Margaret Higgins Sanger Slee (September 14, 1879 – September 6, 1966) was an American birth control activist and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood). Although she was initially met with opposition, Sanger gradually won some support for getting women access to contraception. In her drive to promote contraception and negative eugenics, Sanger remains a controversial figure.

Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia

World War Cycle – The Gilded Age – First Turning, High (1866-1885)
Missionary Generation – Prophet (Idealist) (1860-1882)

Continue reading Today – September 14

Today – August 30

#SCIENCE #OTD

Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

Ernest Rutherford – The father of nuclear physics

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson (30 August 1871–19 October 1937) was a New Zealand born British chemist and physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics.  He discovered that atoms have a small charged nucleus, and thereby pioneered the Rutherford model (or planetary model, which later evolved into the Bohr model or orbital model) of the atom, through his discovery of Rutherford scattering with his gold foil experiment. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908. He is widely credited as splitting the atom in 1917 and leading the first experiment to “split the nucleus” in a controlled manner by two students under his direction, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton in 1932.

Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia

U. S. Contemporaries: World War Cycle – Missionary Generation – Prophet (Idealist) (1860-1882)

Today – August 26

#SCIENCE #OTD

Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

Antoine Lavoisier – The father of modern chemistry.

Portrait of Monsieur de Lavoisier and his Wife...
Portrait of Monsieur de Lavoisier and his Wife, chemist Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (26 August 1743 – 8 May 1794), the father of modern chemistry, was a French noble prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He stated the first version of the law of conservation of mass, recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783), abolished the phlogiston theory, helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same. Thus, for instance, if water is heated to steam, if salt is dissolved in water or if a piece of wood is burned to ashes, the total mass remains unchanged. He was also an investor and administrator of the “Ferme Générale” a private tax collection company; chairman of the board of the Discount Bank (later the Banque de France); and a powerful member of a number of other aristocratic administrative councils. All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research. At the height of the French Revolution he was accused by Marat of selling watered-down tobacco, and of other crimes, and was beheaded

.Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia

U. S. Contemporaries: Revolutionary War Cycle – Republican Generation – Hero (Civic) (1742-1766)

Today – August 6

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Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

Alexander Fleming – Discoverer of penicillin

Sir Alexander Fleming, Nobel Prize in Medicine...
Sir Alexander Fleming, Nobel Prize in Medicine 1945 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Català: Penicillium chrysogenum, syn. Penicill...
Penicillium chrysogenum, syn. Penicillium notatum (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. Fleming published many articles on bacteriology, immunology and chemotherapy.

His best-known achievements are the discovery of the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.

Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia

U. S. Contemporaries: World War Cycle – Missionary Generation – Prophet (Idealist) (1860-1882)

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Today – July 20

#SCIENCE #OTD

Today’s Notable Birthdays

U. S. Birthday

Anne Hutchinson – Religious dissident banned from the Puritan Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Anne Hutchinson on Trial
Anne Hutchinson on Trial (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Anne Hutchinson (baptized July 20, 1591 – August 20, 1643) was a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands and the unauthorized minister of a dissident church discussion group. Hutchinson held Bible meetings for women that soon appealed to men as well. Eventually, she went beyond Bible study to proclaim her own theological interpretations of sermons, some, such as antinomianism, offended the colony leadership. A major controversy ensued, and after a trial before a jury of officials and clergy, she was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia

Colonial Cycle – Elizabethan Renaissance Era – First Turning, High (1589-1620)
Puritan Generation – Prophet (Idealist) (1584-1614)

Continue reading Today – July 20