Today – September 18

Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

Samuel Johnson  - One of England’s most distinguished men of letters

Portrait of Samuel Johnson commissioned for He...

Portrait of Samuel Johnson commissioned for Henry Thrale’s Streatham Park gallery (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr. Johnson, was an English author. Beginning as a Grub Street journalist, he made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, novelist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer. Johnson was a devout Anglican and political conservative, and has been described as “arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history”.  He is also the subject of “the most famous single work of biographical art in the whole of literature”: James Boswell‘s Life of Samuel Johnson.

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U. S. Contemporaries: Revolutionary War Cycle – Awakening Generation – Prophet (Idealist) (1701-1723)

Today – September 17

Today’s Notable U. S. Birthdays

Warren Earl Burger – 15th Chief Justice of the United States

English: Chief Justice Warren Burger Source: h...

English: Chief Justice Warren Burger Source: http://www.supremecourthistory.org (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Warren Earl Burger (September 17, 1907 – June 25, 1995) was the 15th Chief Justice of the United States from 1969 to 1986. Although Burger had conservative leanings, the U.S. Supreme Court delivered a variety of transformative and controversial decisions on abortion, capital punishment, religious establishment, and school desegregation during his tenure.

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World War Cycle – Missionary Awakening Era – Second Turning, Awakening (1886-1909)
G.I. Generation – Hero (Civic) (1901-1924

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Today – September 15

Today’s Notable U. S. Birthday

Official White House portrait of William Howar...

Official White House portrait of William Howard Taft (1911) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

William Howard Taft – 27th President of the United States and 10th Chief Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court

William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States and later the 10th Chief Justice of the United States.

Born in 1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio, into the powerful Taft family, Taft graduated from Yale College in 1878, and from Cincinnati Law School in 1880. Then he worked in a number of local legal positions until being appointed an Ohio Superior Court judge in 1887. In 1890 Taft was appointed Solicitor General of the United States and in 1891 a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. In 1900, President William McKinley appointed Taft Governor-General of the Philippines. In 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt, then a political ally of Taft, appointed Taft Secretary of War in order to groom Taft as his successor to the presidency.

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Civil War Cycle – Era of Slavery Expansion – Third Turning, Unraveling (1838-1859)
Progressive Generation – Artist (Adaptive) (1843-1859)

 

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Today – September 14

Today’s Notable Birthdays

U. S. Birthday

Margaret Sanger - Founder of Planned Parenthood and birth control activist.

Margaret Sanger Deutsch: Margaret Sanger (* 1879)

Margaret Sanger Deutsch: Margaret Sanger (* 1879) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Margaret Higgins Sanger Slee (September 14, 1879 – September 6, 1966) was an American birth control activist and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood). Although she was initially met with opposition, Sanger gradually won some support for getting women access to contraception. In her drive to promote contraception and negative eugenics, Sanger remains a controversial figure.

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World War Cycle – The Gilded Age – First Turning, High (1866-1885)
Missionary Generation – Prophet (Idealist) (1860-1882)

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Today – September 13

Today’s Notable U. S. Birthday

Oliver EvensAmerican inventor and industrialist

Oliver Evans (Engraving by W.G.Jackman)

Oliver Evans (Engraving by W.G.Jackman) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Oliver Evans (13 September 1755 – 15 April 1819) was an American inventor. Evans was born in Newport, Delaware to a family of Welsh settlers. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a wheelwright.

Evans’ first invention was in 1777, when he designed a machine for making card teeth for carding wool. He went into business with his brothers and produced a number of improvements in the flour milling industry. His most important invention was an automated grist mill which operated continuously through the use of bulk material handling devices including bucket elevators, conveyor belts, and Archimedean screws. Evans described this invention in The Young Mill-wright and Millers’ Guide. He patented this invention in a few states and, when the US patent system was established, in the federal patent system. Evans devoted a great deal of his time to patents, patent extensions, and enforcement of his patents.

Automated mill for processing grain designed b...

Automated mill for processing grain designed by American inventor Oliver Evans (1775-1819) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In 1792 he moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he produced an improved high-pressure steam engine — his second most important invention. For some years he contemplated the idea of applying steam power to wagons. He was granted a patent for a steam-carriage design in 1789, but did not produce a working example of such a machine until over a decade later. (See below on his Oruktor Amphibolos). Part of his difficulties was a failure to get financial backing. After lack of support in his native land, in 1794 he sent copies of some his designs to Great Britain in an attempt to interest investors there.

As Evans designed a refrigeration machine which ran on vapor in 1805, he is often called the inventor of the refrigerator, although he never built one. (His design was modified by Jacob Perkins, who obtained the first patent for a refrigerating machine in 1834).

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Revolutionary War Cycle – The French and Indian War Era – Third Turning, Unraveling (1744-1773)
Republican Generation – Hero (Civic) (1742-1766)

Today – September 11

Today’s Memorable U. S. Event

9/11/2001 – Trade Center Attack

September 11, 2001 attacks in New York City: V...

September 11, 2001 attacks in New York City: View of the World Trade Center and the Statue of Liberty. (Image: US National Park Service ) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The September 11 attacks (often referred to as September 11th or 9/11) were a series of coordinated suicide attacks by Al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001. On that morning, 19 Al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners.  The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings. Both buildings collapsed within two hours, destroying nearby buildings and damaging others. The hijackers crashed a third airliner into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside of Washington, D.C. The fourth plane crashed into a field near Shanksville in rural Pennsylvania, after some of its passengers and flight crew attempted to retake control of the plane, which the hijackers had redirected toward Washington, D.C. There were no survivors from any of the flights.  September 11, 2002:  September 11 was officially proclaimed to be Patriot Day.

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Present Cycle – Information Revolution Era – Third Turning, Unraveling (1981-2001?)

Today – September 9

Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

Leo Tolstoy - Greatest Russian novelist

English: Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy shoeless. Oi...

Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy shoeless. Oil on canvas. 207 × 73 cm. The State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.  (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Leo Tolstoy, or Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 1828 – November 20 1910), was a Russian writer widely regarded as among the greatest of novelists. His masterpieces War and Peace and Anna Karenina represent in their scope, breadth and vivid depiction of 19th-century Russian life and attitudes, the peak of realist fiction.

Cover of "War and Peace (Shared Experienc...

Cover of War and Peace (Shared Experience)

Tolstoy’s further talents as essayist, dramatist, and educational reformer made him the most influential member of the aristocratic Tolstoy family. His literal interpretation of the ethical teachings of Jesus, centering on the Sermon on the Mount, caused him in later life to become a fervent Christian anarchist and pacifist. His ideas on nonviolent resistance, expressed in such works as The Kingdom of God Is Within You, were to have a profound impact on such pivotal twentieth-century figures as Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.

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U. S. Contemporaries: Civil War Cycle – Gilded Generation – Nomad (Reactive) (1822-1842)

 

Today – September 8

Today’s Memorable U. S. Event

The founding of St. Augustine, Florida (Sept. 8, 1565) – the oldest continuously occupied European-established city and port in the United States.

English: Spanish admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avi...

Spanish admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (1819-1574) by Francisco de Paula Martí (1762-1827) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The vicinity of St. Augustine was first explored in 1513 by Spanish explorer and governor of Puerto Rico, Ponce de Leon, who claimed the region for the Spanish crown.  Prior to the founding of St. Augustine in 1565, several earlier attempts at European colonization in what is now Florida were made by both Spain and France, but all failed.

The Founding – Pedro Menéndez de Avilés sighted land on August 28, 1565. As this was the feast day of Augustine of Hippo, the territory was named San Agustín. The Spanish sailed through St. Augustine inlet into Matanzas Bay and disembarked near the Timucua town of Seloy on September 7.  Menéndez’s goal was to dig a quick fortification to protect his people and supplies as they were unloaded from the ships, and then to take a more proper survey of the area to determine the best location for the fort. The location of this early fort is unknown, but may be at the grounds of what is now the Fountain of Youth Archaeological Park. It is known that the Spanish occupied several structures in Seloy, the chief of which, known as Chief Seloy, was friendly with the Saturiwa, Laudonnière’s allies. It is possible, but undemonstrated, that Menéndez fortified one of the occupied Timucua structures as this first fort at Seloy.

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Prior to the Colonial Cycle – Elizabethan Renaissance Era – First Turning, High (1589-1620)

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Today – September 7

Today’s Notable Foreign Birthday

Elizabeth I - The Virgin Queen…and last of the Tudor dynasty.

Queen Elizabeth I of England, in whose reign t...

Queen Elizabeth I of England, in whose reign the Thirty-Nine Articles were passed. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called the Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed three years after her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Her brother, Edward VI, cut her out of the succession. His will was set aside, and in 1558 Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister, the Catholic Mary I, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.

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Elder of the Colonial Cycle – Puritan Generation – Prophet (Idealist) (1584-1614)

Today – September 6

Today’s Notable U. S. Birthday

English: American social reformer, Jane Addams

English: American social reformer, Jane Addams (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 – May 21, 1935) was the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. In a long complex career, she was a pioneer settlement worker and founder of Hull House in Chicago, public philosopher (the first American woman in that role), author, and leader in woman suffrage and world peace. She was the most prominent woman of the Progressive Era and helped turn the nation to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, public health and world peace. She emphasized that women have a special responsibility to clean up their communities and make them better places to live, arguing they needed the vote to be effective. Addams became a role model for middle class women who volunteered to uplift their communities. She is increasingly being recognized as a member of the American pragmatist school of philosophy.

Civil War Cycle – Civil War Era – Fourth Turning, Crisis (1860-1865)
World War Cycle – Missionary Generation – Prophet (Idealist) (1860-1882)

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